About Manipulation of Competitions Results

Competition manipulation is when an athlete or official cheats to remove the unpredictability of a competition. They may cheat to lose a competition or part of it, which is entirely against the Olympic spirit and AIBA Code of Ethics and subject to Disciplinary Code. Competition manipulation can happen at any level and in any country. Key issues related to competition manipulation include:

  • A betting prohibition means that athletes, referees and officials are not allowed to bet on their sport, competitions or other sports in the same multisport event – like the Olympic Games.
  • Inside information is all exclusive information (tactics, injuries, etc.) to which athletes and officials have access. This information must be kept private, because it can be used for fraudulent betting purposes.
  • Match-fixing is normally referred to as competition manipulation related to betting. It means any improper alteration of a competition to win money through sports betting or to ensure that a bettor (who may have offered a bribe) wins their bet. Betting-related competition manipulation can affect the result of a competition, but also other minor and marginal occurrences during its course, which is often referred to as spot-fixing.
  • Tanking is to gain undue sporting advantage in a competition, for instance, when athletes lose an event on purpose to play easier opponents in the next phases of the competition